A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is a corporation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education.

The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning "community of teachers and scholars."




The National Sea Grant College and Program Act of 1966 ["Act"] was created with the purpose of establishing and assist funding of a network of "Sea Grant" Colleges among universities in marine and coastal areas to promote development of their programs in in ocean and coastal work.

The Sea Grant Program forms a network between state and coastal research ins ti tutu ions conducting ocean and coastal research and the Federal Government, in recognition of those resources to the nation.

San Diego Offshore International Airport Universities Sea Grant Program Studies Opportunites at Sea OPLAT 2011

One thing we cannot escape - forever afterward, throughout all our life, the memory of the magic of water and its life, of the home which was was once our own - this will never leave us.

William Beebe
American naturalist and author


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Graphic generated from the map on the opening page of the
National Sea Grant College Program website:

Ocean Sciences span multiple disciplines and at-sea campuses offer outstanding opportunity to study issues confronting the global and coastal oceans.

At-Sea Oceanographers use a variety of techniques including laboratory studies, ship-based observations, in situ instruments, and satellite or aircraft-based remote sensing to observe the oceans, developing models ranging from simple conceptual presentation to complex numerical models running on supercomputers to validate findings and test theories.




Mariculture is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater. An example of the latter is the farming of marine fish, including finfish and shellfish e.g. prawns, or oysters and seaweed in saltwater ponds. Non-food products produced by mariculture include: fish meal, nutrient agar, jewelry [e.g. cultured pearls], and cosmetics.

Raising marine organisms under controlled conditions in exposed, high-energy ocean environments beyond significant coastal influence,is a relatively new approach to mariculture. Open Ocean Aquaculture [OOA] uses cages, nets, or long-line arrays that are moored, towed or float freely. Research and commercial open ocean aquaculture facilities are in operation or under development in Australia, Chile, China, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and Norway. As of 2004, two commercial open ocean facilities were operating in U.S. waters, raising Threadfin near Hawaii and cobia near Puerto Rico. An operation targeting bigeye tuna recently received final approval. All U.S. commercial facilities are currently sited in waters under state or territorial jurisdiction.

Mariculture development must be sustained by basic and applied research and development in major fields such as nutrition, genetics, system management, product handling, and socioeconomics. One approach is closed systems that have no direct interaction with the local environment. However, investment and operational cost are currently significantly higher than open cages, limiting them to their current role as hatcheries.

Sustainable mariculture promises economic and environmental benefits. Economies of scale imply that ranching can produce fish at lower cost than industrial fishing, leading to better human diets and the gradual elimination of unsustainable fisheries. Maricultured fish are also perceived to be of higher quality than fish raised in ponds or tanks, and offer more diverse choice of species. Consistent supply and quality control has enabled integration in food market channels.







Tuna ranchers seek future in San Diego

By Mike Lee
5 p.m., May 31, 2011

TBNC Edgemon OPLAT USA Offshore International Airport Platform Mariculture Opportunity Tuna Fishers Exhibits Credit San Diego Union

Tuna ranching off the coast of Baja California is big business for Umami Sustainable Seafood, which recently set up its international headquarters in San Diego. Large pens contain the fish while they mature for markets in places such as Japan. — Karl Petur Jonsson/Umami

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Three decades after San Diego’s famed tuna industry crumbled, an Icelandic entrepreneur is attempting to rebuild the city as a world tuna capital.

Unlike tuna fishers of the 20th Century, Oli Steindorsson isn’t pinning his hopes on the wild harvest of northern bluefin. Instead, his company recently purchased a major tuna farm in Baja California and established its corporate headquarters in a high-rise near Little Italy.

From the 11th floor, Steindorsson can see San Diego Bay, once home to the tuna fleet, and dream about expanding his business into Southern California waters. Today, domestic ocean aquaculture is tangled in red tape, but the Obama administration is rewriting the rules to encourage the development of fish farms.

“This used to be the tuna capital of the world, and what is more appropriate than relocating here because of that,” said Steindorsson, chief executive of Umami Sustainable Seafood. “The hope is that one day we will be allowed to copy and paste these production (techniques) from the Mexico waters into the U.S. waters.”

If his plans work, Umami would be well-positioned to revive a type of commercial fishing in San Diego, provide jobs on the water and feed U.S. customers sushi-grade seafood,,,

“This is big business to these guys. They are like the General Electric of seafood,” said Don Kent, president of the nonprofit Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute in Mission Bay,,,

“It’s our hope that the policies provide sort of a framework for future development of marine aquaculture in an environmentally safe and responsible manner,” said Diane Windham, southwest regional aquaculture coordinator for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Sacramento,,,

“Within 20 to 30 years, America — thinking about its own independence in food sourcing — will really have to look into their (aquaculture) system and how to secure this,” Steindorsson said. “In the next 5 or 10 years, I would be pleasantly surprised if we would be able to start. But if it happens, we will be ready.”

Mike Lee:; (619)293-2034; Follow on Twitter @sdutlee




San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Program Mariculture & Aquaculture Studies OPLAT TBNC 2011
visit SWFSC web presence off site   @

Southwest Fisheries Science Center


NOAA Fisheries Service’s Southwest Fisheries Science Center [SWFSC] integrates policy expertise and cutting-edge scientific research to provide management and conservation of domestic and international living marine resources. Established in 1964 to study and manage the sardine and tuna fisheries of the U.S. west coast, the SWFSC provides scientific advice, manages fisheries and conserves protected species along the U.S. west coast, throughout the Pacific Ocean and in the Southern Ocean off Antarctica.

Environmental Research Division

The Environmental Research Division focuses on the study of environmental influences on marine resources. The division provides oceanographic information to fishery scientists and managers, describes links between environmental processes and population dynamics of important fish stocks, develops means to forecast fish population availability and resilience to fishing pressure, and assesses the effects of global climate change on oceanic processes important to fish population dynamics. Laboratory scientists currently are analyzing oceanographic and atmospheric data to develop indices to characterize how climate changes in the North Pacific may have contributed to a long-term decline in the Steller sea lion population.

Fisheries Ecology Division

The Fisheries Ecology Division conducts research on the ecology of groundfish, economic analysis of fishery data, Pacific salmon studies (including 10 endangered salmon and steelhead runs), and coastal habitat issues affecting the San Francisco Bay and the Gulf of Farallones. Several division scientists currently are members of an advisory panel that is providing scientific advice for implementation of a proposed network of marine protected areas in the state of California. The division also conducts periodic surveys of juvenile rockfishes off central California to determine each year's reproductive success and to better understand the relationship between ocean climate and fish production.

Fisheries Resources Division

The Fisheries Resources Division assesses the biomass of valuable coastal pelagic fish stocks and evaluates biological and environmental factors that affect their distribution, abundance, and survival. The division also conducts basic fishery analysis and stock assessment research on tropical and temperate tunas, billfishes, and sharks. The work is in support of the U.S. commitment to international management of tuna fisheries and the regional management of fisheries for billfish and other large pelagic species.

Protected Resources Division

The Protected Resources Division promotes and conducts research that contributes to the conservation and management of U.S. and international populations of marine mammals and their critical habitats. Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act guide the division's activities, which include monitoring the abundance of pinniped and cetacean stocks and sea turtles, assessing and helping to minimize the effect of fishing operations and other human activities on these populations, determining stock structure and population dynamics, and conducting research on "dolphin-safe" tuna fishing methods.

The La Jolla Laboratory Replacement Project

NOAA is planning to construct a replacement facility for the SWFSC headquarters on land leased from the University of California San Diego across La Jolla Shores Drive from the existing SWFSC facility on the campus of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Currently in the design phase, this facility is to be constructed around a large sea- and fresh-water test tank facility which will expand NOAA’s ability to develop and apply advanced technologies for surveys of fisheries resources and their associated ecosystems and to foster collaborations on fisheries management issues. NOAA is pursuing certification of the building under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design [LEED] Green Building Rating System. Based on the design work to date, the project recently received a top award from the American Institute of Architects, a rare honor for a project not yet built.

visit SWFSC web presence off site  @ 

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Program 2011 Mariculture & Aquaculture Studies 2011 TBNC OPLATArchitect’s rendition of the new SWFSC headquarters in La Jolla on the campus of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego.




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