PUBLIC INFORMATION SERIES


REPRESENTATIONAL PLANNING, ENGINEERING, ENVIRONMENTAL & TECHNOLOGY EXHIBITS
PRESENTATION 2017

 

TENSION LEG MOORING & ARTIFICIAL REEF DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS
OFFSHORE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT PLATFORM PROGRAM   ·  UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

 

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Mooring legs Reef Development Studies 2011

Undersea mooring of human-engineered floating structures include a large number of offshore oil and gas platforms and, since 2008, a few floating wind turbines. Two common types of engineered design for anchoring floating structures include tension-leg and catenary loose mooring systems.

"Tension leg mooring systems have vertical tethers under tension providing large restoring moments in pitch and roll. Catenary mooring systems provide station keeping for an offshore structure yet provide little stiffness at low tensions."

A semi-submersible is a specialised marine vessel with good stability and seakeeping characteristics. The semi-submersible vessel design is commonly used in a number of specific offshore roles such as for offshore drilling rigs, safety vessels, oil production platforms and heavy lift cranes.


The terms semisubmersible, semi-sub or just semi are also generally used for this Offshore International Airport Platform design.


CREDITS

A semi-submersible obtains its buoyancy from ballasted, watertight pontoons located below the ocean surface and wave action. The operating deck can be located high above the sea level due to the good stability of the concept, and therefore the operating deck is kept well away from the waves. Structural columns connect the pontoons and operating deck.

With its hull structure submerged at a deep draft, the semi-submersible is less affected by wave loadings than a normal ship. With a small water-plane area, however, the semi-submersible is sensitive to load changes, and therefore must be carefully trimmed to maintain stability. Unlike a submarine or submersible, during normal operations, a semi-submersible vessel is never entirely underwater.

A semi-submersible vessel is able to transform from a deep to a shallow draft by deballasting [removing ballast water from the hull], and thereby become a surface vessel. The heavy lift vessels use this capability to submerge the majority of their structure, locate beneath another floating vessel, and then deballast to pick up the other vessel as a cargo.

 

 

TBNC Edgemon OPLAT USA Offshore International Airport Platform Southern California USA Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Edgemon California CSLB 274107


PROGRESSIVE INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
TENSION LEG METHODOLOGIES
CURRENT APPLICATIONS

“Each one of these projects requires innovative technology that at the time we began did not exist, and that pattern will continue.” John Hollowell, Shell’s Executive Vice President for Deep Water

Posted on June 5, 2013 at 3:05 pm
Emily Pickrell  ·  Beaumont  · Texas

OLYMPUS

OPLAT USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Home Offices Carlsbad, California Tom Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107 San Diego Offices

 

INGLESIDE — Royal Dutch Shell is about to move a mountain, towing its new state-of-the-art Olympus platform for duty in the Gulf of Mexico’s deep water.

The Olympus, designed to operate in water depths of 3,000 to 5,000 feet, will be Shell’s sixth [6th] tension leg platform in the Gulf. The company escorted a group of journalists on a tour of the platform Wednesday.

The platform — towering four hundred and six [406'] feet from the base of the hull to the top of the derrick — is docked at the Ingleside, Texas shipyard near Corpus Christi [birthplace of Tom Edgemon, CEO, OPLAT-USA] and will leave in about a month to work at the Mars B project one hundred thirty [130] miles south of New Orleans. Earlier this year, the hull made an 18,000-mile, two-month trek from South Korea to Ingleside.

Multiple tugboats will tow the platform through the Aransas Pass jetties and then east to the Mars field. When the platform is at its final location, workers will install the sixteen [16] tension legs that will anchor it to the ocean floor.

Tension leg platforms are named for those steel tendons, which reach from pontoons supporting the floating platform to the ocean bed. They provide greater stability and more deck space than some other platform designs.

 

OPLAT USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Tom Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107
Image Credit Shell Offshore, Inc.

Shell Offshore Inc.'s Olympus hull completed a 18,272-mile journey to Ingleside, Texas on Jan. 26, 2013. It took two months for the structure to travel from South Korea. It was transported on the Blue Marlin, a vessel with a twenty-six [26] person crew.

 

Kelly Bowen, principal construction engineer on the project, compared the structure to an upside-down pendulum.

“Instead of gravity, we are using buoyancy to create the tension,” he said. That involves ballasting the hull to submerge it, attaching the legs, then removing the ballast so the rising hull applies upward tension on the legs.

When the Olympus is fully installed, subsea equipment will link it to wells and pipelines. Shell expects to begin production next year.

Shell owns 71.5 percent of Mars B project and operates it. BP has the remaining ownership interest.

The Olympus is Shell’s largest platform, and the company expects it to produce 100,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day at its peak.

The Mars A tension leg platform, built in 1996 and already at work in the Mars field, has produced 700 million barrels to date.

 

OPLAT USA Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers, California Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107Image Credit Gary Fountain / The Houston Chronicle

Olympus’ drilling rig is about twice the size of the one on the existing platform, and is designed to access reservoirs at 22,000 feet — beyond the reach of the first facility

The new platform is expected to extend the life of the Mars field to at least 2050.

Derek Newberry, Shell’s Mars B business opportunity manager, said the integration of the new technology for the platform, combined with existing infrastructure in the Mars field, will allow Shell to maximize the field’s potential.

The Olympus drilling rig, constructed by Lonestar Energy Fabrication, will become part of the world's largest tension leg platform. Royal Dutch Shell's Olympus TLP weighs five million pounds.

John Hollowell, Shell’s executive vice president for deep water, said that while some aspects of the Olympus design were developed on earlier platforms, each new project requires some technology to address characteristics unique to the reservoir for which it is designed.

“Each one of these projects requires innovative technology that at the time we began did not exist,” Hollowell said. “And that pattern will continue.”

 

OPLAT USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers, Home Offices Carlsbad, CaliforniaImage Credit
Lonestar Energy Fabrication

Among the innovations on Olympus is that it’s crew can control ballast from its deck, reducing safety risks by eliminating the need for workers to descend into the platform’s legs to monitor and adjust its position.

And its control room will be among the first using fiber optics to communicate with facilities on shore. Mars A transmits data by microwave, which is slower and less reliable than fiber optics.

This new capability will allow shoreside personnel to evaluate reservoir and drilling data in real time, said Steve Flack, Shell’s integration manager for Olympus.

One of the three [3] control room operators will be stationed in New Orleans, allowing for oversight of operations from aboard the platform and from shore.

“The reason you want to do that is because it brings field experience to engineers, and it brings engineers to field experience,” Flack said. “It bridges this gap of information flow.”

The drill floor is lifted onto the drilling structure, which will become part of Royal Dutch Shell's Olympus offshore oil platform. Shell plans to use the Olympus to add a six-well subsea development in the Gulf of Mexico.

 

OPLAT USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA Tom Edgemon TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Home Offices Carlsbad, California
Image Credit The Houston Chronicle

Shell's Olympus production platform rises above the Ingleside shipyard near Corpus Christi, Texas June 5, 2013. The Olympus is scheduled to be towed later in the summer to Shell's Mars B project one hundred thirty [130] miles south of New Orleans.

 

 

OPLAT USA Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Edgemon CSLB.CA 274107 Creators of Premier Recreational Communities

The Olympus, traveled more than eighteen thousand [18,000] miles in two [2] months to Ingleside, Texas, USA

 

OPLAT USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Home Offices Carlsbad, California Tom Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107 San Diego Offices

The hull of Royal Dutch Shell’s latest offshore platform, which traveled from South Korea, arrived Saturday from at a Texas port where it will be assembled before it sails to its final location in the Gulf of Mexico. Its topside will be assembled over the next two [2] months.

Shell designed the Olympus as a tension leg platform, which provides a large enough deck to process oil on deck. The Olympus will be Shell’s sixth tension leg platform and its largest to date. It will operate in the Mars Field at a water depth of about 3,000 feet. Shell owns 71.5 percent of the development and is the operator, and BP is a 28.5 percent owner.

Shell plans to use the Olympus to add a six-well subsea development West Boreas/South Deimos in the Mars field. The federal government approved Shell’s Olympus exploration plan at the end of 2011. The project extends the life of the Mars Field to at least 2050, Shell said.

 

OPLAT USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform program Southern California USA, TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers: Tom Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107 Home Offices Carlsbad, California USAEmily Pickrell

EMILY PICKRELL

Contact Ms. Pickrell

The Energy Reporter, with a passion for complex business litigation,
water use issues, independent energy exploration...the list goes on.

Also a devoted folk singer-songwriter and a native Seattle-ite

  

TBNC Edgemon OPLAT USA Offshore International Airport Platform Southern California USA Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Edgemon California CSLB 274107
Visit fuelFix at Off Site Web Presence @ fuelfix.com

 

 


 

 

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform RigZone.Iconic.Image Credit Tension Leg 001 OPLAT USA TBNC 2011


TECHNICAL CREDITS
San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Tension Leg Studies RigZone USA Credits Icon Logo OPLAT TBNC USA
5870 Hwy 6 North · Suite 107
Houston · Texas 77084
281.345.4040

www.rigzone.com

Copyright © 2009 Bishop Interactive

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform PetroEd Tension Leg Studies Credit OPLAT USA TBNC

TENSION LEG PLATFORM
STUDY EXHIBITS

A Tension-leg platform or Extended Tension Leg Platform [ETLP] is a vertically moored floating structure normally used for the offshore production of oil or gas, and is particularly suited for water depths greater than three hundred [300m] metres [approximately 1000 feet] and less than one thousand five hundred [1500m] meters [approximately 4900 feet].

Use of tension-leg platforms has also been proposed for wind turbines.

TLP's have been in use since the early 1980s. The first Tension Leg Platform was built for Conoco's Hutton field in the North Sea in the early 1980s.

 

 

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform tension Leg Studies 2011 OPLAT TBNC Credit RigZone USA

A type of floating production system, tension leg platforms [TLPs] are buoyant production facilities
vertically moored to the seafloor by tendons.

www.rigzone.com

While a buoyant hull supports the platform's topsides, an intricate mooring system keeps the TLP in place. The buoyancy of the facility's hull offsets the weight of the platform, requiring clusters of tight tendons, or tension legs, to secure the structure to the foundation on the seabed. The foundation is then kept stationary by piles driven into the seabed.

The tension leg mooring system allows for horizontal movement with wave disturbances, but does not permit vertical, or bobbing, movement, which makes TLPs a popular choice for stability, such as in the hurricane-prone Gulf of Mexico.

The basic design of a TLP includes four air-filled columns forming a square. These columns are supported and connected by pontoons, similar to the design of a semisubmersible production platform. Nonetheless, since their inception in the mid 1980s, TLP designs have changed according to development requirements. Now, designs also comprise the E-TLP, which includes a ring pontoon connecting the four air-filled columns; the Moses TLP, which centralizes the four-column hull; and the SeaStar TLP, which includes only one central column for a hull.

TBNC Edgemon Offshore International Platform Development program, Mooring & Leg Components San Diego, California USA

TECHNICAL CREDITS
San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Tension Leg Studies RigZone USA Credits Icon Logo OPLAT TBNC USA

Source: A Moses TLP

The platform deck is located atop the hull of the TLP. The topside of a TLP is the same as a typical production platform, consisting of a deck that houses the drilling and production equipment, as well as the power module and the living quarters. Dry tree wells are common on TLPs because of the lessened vertical movement on the platforms.

Most wells producing to TLPs are developed through rigid risers, which lift the hydrocarbons from the seafloor to dry trees located on the TLP deck. Many times, steel catenary risers are also used to tie-in the subsea flowlines and export pipelines.

The third-most used type of floating production facility in the world, TLPs are ideal for a broad range of water depths. Currently, there are three different types of TLPs: full-size TLPs, mini TLPs and wellhead TLPs.

 

Larger TLP's will normally have a full drilling rig on the platform with which to drill and intervene on the wells. The smaller TLPs may have a workover rig, or in a few cases no production wellheads located on the platform at all.

The deepest Tension Leg Platforms [TLP] measured from the sea floor to the surface [estimated] are:

4,250 ft. [1,295 m Neptune TLP

3,863 ft. [1,177 m] Kizomba A TLP

3,800 ft. [1,158 m] Ursa TLP. Its height above surface is 485 ft. [148 m] making a total height of 4,285 ft. [1,306 m].

3,350 ft. [1,021 m] Allegheny TLP

3,300 ft. [1,006 m] W. Seno A TLP

 

 


 

 

THE URSA TENSION LEG PLATFORM
REPRESENTATIONAL FACILITIES STUDIES CYE 2012 - 2015

OPLAT USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Home Offices Carlsbad, California Tom Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107 San Diego Offices

PROGRESSIVE INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
TENSION LEG METHODOLOGIES   ·  CURRENT APPLICATIONS

TBNC Edgemon OPLAT USA Offshore International Airport Platform Southern California USA Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Edgemon California CSLB 274107

Posted on December 27, 2012 at 7:07 am

Emily Pickrell
Crude Oil  ·  Offshore


Visit fuelFix at Off Site Web Presence @ fuelfix.com

 

 

OPLAT-USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers, Home Offices Carlsbad, California USA Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107
Image Credit  ·  James Nielsen / The Houston Chronicle

The Control Room on the Shell Ursa TLP [Tension Leg Platform] located in the Mississippi Canyon Block 809 in Gulf of Mexico Wednesday, Oct. 17, 2012.

 

ABOARD THE URSA TENSION LEG PLATFORM:

When the Guinness Book of Records was looking for the tallest structure in the world in 2009, it selected Shell’s Ursa platform, located about one hundred thirty [130] miles southeast of New Orleans in the Gulf of Mexico.

The platform rests on the waterline, its visible structure measuring a mere four hundred [400'] feet or so, but when the mooring tendons that hold it in place to the ocean floor are included, its total height from the seabed to the crown of the derrick is 4,285 feet – four [4] times the height of Houston’s JPMorgan Chase Tower.

Shell made its decision to moor the Ursa with tension legs based both on the conditions at the platform site and on engineering expertise in the technology gained from previous Shell tension leg projects.

“Being the pioneers, you like to design something and get it right in all aspects,” said Bill Henry, Shell’s vice president for upstream development, noting that Shell built five [5] tension leg platforms in close succession and the water depth for Ursa was appropriate for such mooring.

 

OPLAT-USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers, Tom Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107 Home Office Carlsbad, California USA [Near San Diego]
Image Credit  ·  James Nielsen / The Houston Chronicle

A view looking down into one of four [4] circular steel columns which are eighty-five [85'] feet in diameter, one hundred seventy-seven [177'] feet high, on the Shell Ursa TLP [Tension Leg Platform] located in the Mississippi Canyon Block 809 in Gulf of Mexico Wednesday, Oct. 17, 2012.

 

“It allowed us to focus on getting all the dimensions right, refining that design and improving on it,” Henry said.

Tension leg platforms are named for the steel tendons that reach straight down from the pontoon supporting the floating platform to the ocean bed, often more than a half a mile below.

Shell has used a tension leg system to moor five Gulf of Mexico floating deep-water platforms, and is using tension legs on its next platform, Mars B-Olympus, scheduled for completion in 2015.

Mary Grace Anderson, a deep-water development manager for Shell who led visitors on a recent tour aboard Ursa, said its engineers have made safety and efficiency refinements with each platform.

“We learn new things about distance, the placement of equipment, how different modules fit together and how they compensate for motion,” she said.

 

VISIBLE BENEFITS

The sixteen [16] tendons – four [4] on each corner of the pontoon – that keep Ursa moored to the ocean floor look like steel rods, each thirty-two [32"] inches in diameter. Earlier designs used four[4] to eight [8] tendons, but experience has shown that sixteen [16] provide greater stability.

While the tension legs that make it all possible are underwater, the benefits of the technology are visible on the Ursa. The buoyancy of the pontoon maintains the tension in the tendons, so that they never go slack, which minimizes vertical motion on the platform.

Reducing movement allows wellheads to be placed on the platform instead of the ocean floor. That makes it easier to monitor and operate the wellheads – assemblies containing production control valves and other equipment- said Tao Wang, a naval architect with Aker Solutions.

“Generally, the equipment itself is less expensive, because it is less sophisticated,” Henry said. “For subsea wellheads, we have to have subsea robots, equipment and lots of instrumentation that can only be remotely accessed.”

 

OPLAT-USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Home Offices Carlsbad, California USA Tom Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107
Image Credit  ·  James Nielsen / The Houston Chronicle

Shell's Richard Crabtree walks in a tunnel in approximately ninety-eight [98'] feet underwater which connects the four [4] circular steel columns which are eighty-five [85'] feet in diameter, one hundred seventy -seven [177'] feet high, on the Shell Ursa TLP [Tension Leg Platform] located in the Mississippi Canyon Block 809 in Gulf of Mexico Wednesday, Oct. 17, 2012.

 

Ursa has six [6] decks, each three hundred [300'] feet by three hundred [300'] feet, with enough total deck space for wellheads, drilling and processing equipment and crew quarters.

It produces 150,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day from eight [8] wells.

The high volume helped justify the larger platform and pontoon necessary to support the tremendous weight of the tension legs.

Anderson said Ursa’s design allows for up to fourteen [14] wells, and tension leg platforms are preferred when multiple wells are clustered to serve a single platform.

The larger structure also can accommodate both drilling and production facilities, she said, making it possible to drill for additional wells even after production has begun.

“It might also change your plans on other reservoirs you want to go after,” she said. “You learn things about the production characteristics of the reservoir that may cause you to change your development plans.”

Shell introduced its tension leg platform design with Auger in 1993, followed by Mars, Ram-Powell, Brutus and Ursa, which was built in 1999. All of these discoveries are in the Gulf of Mexico and fall within the 4,000 to 7,000 foot water depth considered appropriate for tension leg platforms.

 

FOR 1,000-YEAR STORMS

Henry said the water must be deep enough to justify the complicated, costly technology, but not so deep that the steel tendons are too heavy for the platform to support and too costly to manufacture and install.

Ensuring stability, even in severe hurricane conditions, has driven improvements in tension leg design by Shell and others.

Chevron’s Typhoon tension leg platform flipped over during Hurricane Rita in 2005 and had to be scrapped.

Its Bigfoot tension leg platform, now under construction, is designed to withstand 1,000-year storms, with improvements including Sixteen [16] tendons.

“We are designing for a higher level of storm conditions and are confident that Bigfoot has the appropriate design,” said Joe Gregory, general manager for Chevron’s major capital projects in the Gulf of Mexico.

“There are a multitude of design alternatives,” Gregory said. “It depends on how we want to develop the reservoirs, what we are going to put on the facility and the way the facility behaves in the sea state.”

Ultimately, as with every vessel or structure that rests on the water, the most important consideration is how well it floats. “In the design, we start with the basics, and the basics that you have to consider are ballast and buoyancy,” said Wang, the naval architect.

 

OPLAT-USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California USA TBNC Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers, Home Offices Carlsbad, California USA Tom Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107Image Credit  ·  James Nielsen / The Houston Chronicle

OPLAT-USA Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platform Program Southern California TBNC-Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Home Offices Carlsbad, California USA Tom Edgemon CSLB.CA 274107 California USAImage Credit  ·  James Nielsen / The Houston Chronicle

On-Site images of circular steel columns which are eighty-five [85'] feet in diameter, one hundred seventy-seven [177'] feet high, on the Shell Ursa TLP [Tension Leg Platform] located in the Mississippi Canyon Block 809 in Gulf of Mexico Wednesday, Oct. 17, 2012

 

Buoyancy becomes even more important in planning how to link the platform to future discoveries nearby through a process called subsea tieback. A platform’s ability to support tiebacks depends on its buoyancy.

“One of the important considerations in a platform is how big you build it and how much spare buoyancy you have for future tieback possibilities,” Henry said. “Everything you tie back has to be supported by the buoyancy of the platform. It is a consideration – how much you are willing to bet on future discoveries by extra buoyancy. Everything in deep water has to float. Everything you add to it has to be supported.”

Contact Ms. Pickrell @ Houston Chronicle

TBNC Edgemon OPLAT USA Offshore International Airport Platform Southern California USA Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Edgemon California CSLB 274107
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TBNC OPLAT OFFSHORE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT PLATFORM PS4® CS4™ CASE STUDY PROGRAM
BALLAST & TENSION LEG MOORING STUDIES · CUT SECTION 0.00 - 6.55

 

SUBSEA GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING



STUDY CREDIT

In subsea geotechnical engineering, seabed materials are considered a two-phase material composed of 1: rock or mineral particles and 2: water. Structures may be fixed in place in the seabed—as in piers, jetties, or fixed-bottom wind turbines—or may be floating structures anchored to remain in a sea-surface position that remain roughly fixed relative to its geotechnical anchor point.

Geotechnical engineers perform geotechnical investigations to obtain information on the physical properties of soil and rock underlying [and sometimes adjacent to] a site to design earthworks and foundations for proposed structures, and for repair of distress to earthworks and structures caused by subsurface conditions.

A geotechnical investigation will include surface exploration and subsurface exploration of a site. Sometimes, geophysical methods are used to obtain data about sites. Subsurface exploration usually involves in-situ testing [two common examples of in-situ tests are the standard penetration test and cone penetration test. In addition site investigation will often include subsurface sampling and laboratory testing of the soil samples retrieved. The digging of test pits and trenching [particularly for locating faults and slide planes may also be used to learn about soil conditions at depth. Large diameter borings are rarely used due to safety concerns and expense, but are sometimes used to allow a geologist or engineer to be lowered into the borehole for direct visual and manual examination of the soil and rock stratigraphy.

A variety of soil samplers exist to meet the needs of different engineering projects. The standard penetration test [SPT], which uses a thick-walled split spoon sampler, is the most common way to collect disturbed samples. Piston samplers, employing a thin-walled tube, are most commonly used for the collection of less disturbed samples. More advanced methods, such as ground freezing and the Sherbrooke block sampler, are superior, but even more expensive.

Atterberg limits tests, water content measurements, and grain size analysis, for example, may be performed on disturbed samples obtained from thick walled soil samplers. Properties such as shear strength, stiffness hydraulic conductivity, and coefficient of consolidation may be significantly altered by sample disturbance. To measure these properties in the laboratory, high quality sampling would required. Common tests to measure the strength and stiffness include the triaxial shear, unconfined compression test.

Surface exploration can include geologic mapping, geophysical methods, and photogrammetry, or it can be as simple as an engineer walking around on the site to observe the physical conditions at the site. Geologic mapping and interpretation of geomorphology is typically completed in consultation with a geologist or engineering geologist.

Geophysical exploration is also sometimes used; geophysical techniques used for subsurface exploration include measurement of seismic waves [pressure, shear, and Rayleigh waves], using surface-wave methods and/or downhole methods, and electromagnetic surveys [magnetometer, resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar].

 

 

ARTIFICIAL REEF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
OFFSHORE PLATFORM TENSION LEG MOORING SYSTEMS

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Mooring Leg reef Development Studies TBNC OPLAT 2011OPLAT
Artificial Reef Development

TECHNICAL DATA
STUDY CREDITS

Artificial reefs have been created with many materials, including sunken ships, old cars, armored vehicles and even tires, the electro-accretion process builds a reef that is closest in composition to the natural reef.

In addition to artificial reefs, this process could be incorporated in mid-ocean and deep-sea structures. These possibilities include wind farms, out of sight of land, or artificial islands for resort and recreational use.

One of the more interesting possibilities is specific-built artificial reef structures configured upon the sea bed mooring system of a floating structure in deep water. An artificial ecosystem could be developed, providing the basis for sustainable fish-farming and mariculture.

Building an artificial mooring bed reef initiates the ecosystem. Adding real coral parents a seafood pyramid. With such a structure, the food pyramid could enhance economically useful mariculture members from kelp to sardines, groundfish, tuna and cod.

Artificial ocean structures could become an important part of maintaining biodiversity, while at the same time providing new locations to practice aquaculture and mariculture for the purpose of growing food and other oceanic products.

 

 

VALUABLE PLANNING & ENGINEERING RESOURCE
SIGNIFICANT OCEANS ENVIRONMENT STEWARDSHIP

The Dedicated Interdisciplinary Team of Ecologically-Focused Marine Scientists

Blue Latitudes is comprised of a team of marine scientists, communication specialists, software developers, and designers. Our interdisciplinary team of ecologically-focused experts seamlessly navigates science, policy, and economics to create comprehensive, sustainable and cost-effective solutions for the issue surrounding offshore oil and gas decommissioning.

Blue Latitudes Mission Statement

Blue Latitudes unites science, policy, and economics to create innovative solutions for the complex ecological challenges associated with offshore structures. 

 

Approach Statement

Blue Latitudes approach is unique in that it has established an international portfolio for outreach and communication that addresses the ecological challenges associated with repurposing offshore structures.

Blue Latitudes’ network and media connections with conservation groups, like Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Mission Blue, Patagonia, Huffington Post and National Geographic gives us a proven sustainable edge.

With over twenty thousand [20k] followers across multiple media platforms, including Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, Google +, and YouTube, Blue Latitudes is able to provide its clients with a global platform to meet their outreach and communication needs.

 

Global Experience

Blue Latitudes has conducted projects all over the world, including California, the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea. Blue Latitudes possesses a strong commitment to its collaborators and clients, which include private industry, state and federal agencies, private foundations, and nongovernmental organizations.

Recent collaborations have included the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Living North Sea Initiative, the Gulf of Mexico Foundation, Shell, Mission Blue, ScubaPro, Keiko Conservation, National Geographic, and Patagonia.

 

The Disciplines 

Blue Latitudes offers its clients access to a unique team of professionals who specialize in a variety of interrelated services. These scientists and other professionals combine their abilities to solve industry challenges in an efficient, timely, and cost-effective manner. Blue Latitudes services are categorized in the following disciplines:

Communication and Marketing Services

Research and Consulting Services

Decision Analyses Services

 

Research and Consulting Services

Blue Latitudes strategic research and consulting services include:

Literature Reviews 

Policy Development

Consulting on the economic implications, and ecological sustainability and productivity of Rigs-to-Reefs program implementation

 

Ocean's Environmental Stewardship - California

California's horizon has been speckled by oil and gas platforms since the 1950's. Although these towering, distant objects bring in over two [2b] billion dollars in annual oil revenue to the state of California, many local residents complain that their very existence is a brutal eyesore and an extreme liability should there be an oil spill.

These legitimate grievances may soon receive retribution as the oil wells dry up and offshore production slows to a halt.

With the potential to be decommissioned in the next decade, California stands at an important policy crossroads: safely eliminating the eye sore and liability of the oil and gas platforms while still protecting the valuable and fragile ecosystems that have formed on and around these structures.


 

SPECIAL BLUE LATITUDES MISSION

Scientific studies at University of California Santa Barbara conclude that the underwater platform structures have evolved into economically and ecologically valuable ecosystems. "In some locations, platforms may provide much or all of the adult fishes of some heavily-fished species and this contribute disproportionately to those species larval production."

The complete removal of these oil and gas platforms will unquestionably harm the animals and plants that call these structures home. 

Decommissioned Oil Platforms [Rigs] as an Artificial Reef

 

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@
www.rig2reefexploration.org

 

 


 

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Deep Water Coral Development Stdudies TBNC OPLAT 2011

TECHNICAL DATA SOURCE CREDIT

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Deep Water Reef Creation Programs TBNC OPLAT 2011 VISIT CORIS OFFSITE @    http://coris.noaa.gov/about/deep

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF COLD-WATER CORALS

Deep-water corals are found globally, from coastal Antarctica to the Arctic Circle. In northern Atlantic waters, the principal coral species that contribute to reef formation are Lophelia pertusa, Oculina varicosa, Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum cristagalli, Enallopsammia rostrata, Solenosmilia variabilis, and Goniocorella dumosa. Four of those genera (Lophelia, Desmophyllum, Solenosmilia, and Goniocorella) constitute the majority of known deep-water coral banks at depths of 400 to 700 m [Cairns and Stanley, 1982].

Deep-water corals are similar in some ways to the more familiar corals of shallow, tropical seas. Like their tropical equivalents, the hard corals develop sizeable reef structures that host rich and varied invertebrate and fish fauna. However, unlike their tropical cousins, which are typically found in waters above 70m depth and at temperatures between 23° and 29° C, deep-water corals live at depths just beneath the surface to the abyss [2000 m], where water temperatures may be as cold as 4° C and utter darkness prevails.

Deep-water corals range in size from small solitary colonies to large, branching tree-like structures, which appear as oases of teeming life surrounded by more barren bathymetry. The gorgonians [sea fans] also range from small individuals to those with tree-like dimensions. The gorgonian, Paragorgia arborea, may grow in excess of three meters in length [Watling, 2001]. Growth rates of branching deep-water coral species, such as Lophelia and Oculina, range from ~ 1.0 - 2.5 cm/yr, whereas branching shallow-water corals, such as Acropora, may exceed 10-20 cm/yr. Using coral age-dating methods, scientists have estimated that some living deep-water corals date back at least 10,000 years [Mayer, 2001].

However, little is known of their basic biology, including how they feed or their methods and timing of reproduction.

 


 

ELECTRODEPOSTION OF MINERALS & MINERAL ACCRETION STUDIES PROGRAM 2015-16

Significant Environmental Impact Mitigation and Sea Bed Mooring Enhancements

 


STUDY CREDIT

DEEP WATER CORAL DEVELOPMENT

The habitat of deep-water corals, also known as cold-water corals, extends to deeper, darker parts of the oceans than tropical corals, ranging from near the surface to the abyss, beyond 2,000 metres [6,600 feet] where water temperatures may be as cold as 4 °C.

Deep-water corals belong to the Phylum Cnidaria and are most often stony corals, but also include black and horny corals and soft corals including the Gorgonians [sea fans]. Like tropical corals, they provide habitat to other species, but deep-water corals do not require zooxanthellae to survive.

While there are nearly as many species of deep-water corals as shallow-water species, only a few deep-water species develop traditional reefs. Instead, they form aggregations called patches, banks, bioherms, massifs, thickets or groves. These aggregations are often referred to as "reefs," but differ structurally and functionally.

Deep sea reefs are sometimes referred to as "mounds," which more accurately describes the large calcium carbonate skeleton that is left behind as a reef grows and corals below die off, rather than the living habitat and refuge that deep sea corals provide for fish and invertebrates. Mounds may or may not contain living deep sea reefs.

Submarine communications cables and fishing methods such as bottom trawling tend to break corals apart and destroy reefs. The deep-water habitat is designated as a United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan habitat.


DISTRIBUTION

Deep-water corals are widely distributed within the earth’s oceans, with large reefs/beds in the far North and far South Atlantic, as well as in the tropics in places such as the Florida coast. In the north Atlantic, the principal coral species that contribute to reef formation are Lophelia pertusa, Oculina varicosa, Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum cristagalli, Enallopsammia rostrata, Solenosmilia variabilis, and Goniocorella dumosa. Four genera [Lophelia, Desmophyllum, Solenosmilia, and Goniocorella] constitute most deep-water coral banks at depths of 400–700 metres [1,300–2,300 feet].

Madrepora oculata occurs as deep as 2,020 metres and is one of a dozen species that occur globally and in all oceans, including the Subantarctic [Cairns, 1982]. Colonies of Enallopsammia contribute to the framework of deep-water coral banks found at depths of 600 to 800 metres in the Straits of Florida [Cairns and Stanley, 1982].

 

 

Electrical Stimulation Greatly Increases Settlement, Growth, Survival, and Stress Resistance of Marine Organisms

ELECTRODEPOSTION OF MINERALS & MINERAL ACCRETION IN SEA WATER TECHNOLOGY

Visit Biorock Web Presence
@
www.biorock.net/Technologies

The process of Electrodeposition of Minerals in Sea Water known as Mineral Accretion Technology was developed by Architect, Marine Scientist, Prof. Wolf H. Hilbertz, through extensive experimental applications, demonstration, and commercial projects commenced in 1974, covering coastal defense structures, shoreline stabilization - erosion control, artificial reefs, mariculture, and marine construction. [Reference Publications: 1975-1981]

 In the course developing Accretion Technology directed toward structural applications, exceptional accumulations and growth rates of marine organisms on accreting structures were observed. The process was further developed as Biorock;

In 1988, Prof. Wolf H.Hilbertz, began collaboration with Coral Ecologist, Dr. Thomas J. Goreau, of the Global Coral Reef Alliance, in research and development of Biorock with a focus on coral propagation, preservation of corals, and coral reef restoration.

Demonstration projects conducted at number of locations around the world have involved the grafting of salvaged coral fragments to Biorock Reef Structures.

Restoration of coral growth under "impossible" conditions. In the Maldives in 1998 only 1-5% of corals survived heatstroke caused by global warming,
however in the same habitats, 50-80% of the corals on Biorock structures survived. 

 

BIOROCK REEF ELECTRODEPOSTION OF MINERALS & MINERAL ACCRETION
APPLICATION SUCCESS SCHEDULE

Enhanced growth rates of the salvaged corals were monitored and documented.

Survival of corals on Biorock Reef Structures exceeded the survival of corals on adjacent natural coral reef formations under severely degrading environmental conditions.

Biorock Reef Structures immediately became integrated, living parts of their marine environment, providing additional substrata available and conducive to further natural settlement of wild corals

Biorock Reef Structures ultimately hold promise to augment repopulating of corals on natural reefs that have suffered degradation and devastation from numerous human related and natural causes.

 

 

Biorock is the Trademark of Biorock Inc. 
Biorock is a Patented Process Owned by Biorock Inc.,
Protected under International Intellectual Property Legislation.
Copyright © Applies to All  www.Biorock.Net Website Content.  All rights reserved. 

Business and Professional inquiries regarding Biorock can be directed to: 

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It sounds like sorcery, a marine-style Frankenstein project: Graft bits of coral onto a rebar skeleton, shock it with electricity, and boom, "it's alive!"

With coral reefs besieged on all fronts, it's past time for thinking outside the box. One group, the Global Coral Reef Alliance, has literally taken charge.

Their Biorock® "reefs," metal and wire-mesh constructs in the shape of domes, tunnels and even a giant sea turtle, are growing corals and restoring degraded coastal reef habitats in 20 countries. Wired to existing onshore electricity sources, solar panels, windmills, and tidal and wave generators, low-voltage direct current flows through the structure, causing minerals in the seawater to precipitate onto the steel frame, resulting in the formation of a limestone layer. Scientists then attach small sprigs of salvaged coral, which quickly become cemented into place by the accumulating limestone. These transplants grow very rapidly, two to six times faster than the normal rate of growth. Others find this fertile substrate ideal as well; drifting wild coral larvae recruits often settle down to sprout with vigor.

Biorock corals are also better able to cope with environmental stresses such as pollution, sedimentation and climate change. In the catastrophic 1998 El Niño bleaching event, 50-80 percent of corals on electric reefs in the Maldives survived dramatically elevated water temperatures as opposed to just 5-10 percent survival rates on adjacent off-grid reefs.

Biorock technology presents an effective opportunity not only to jump start coral reef restoration projects, but also to create vital habitats, build fish populations and support local communities through enhanced diving and snorkeling ecotourism. It can even aid in the prevention of beach erosion. But what is really needed to supercharge these conservation efforts? As with many others, Biorock needs increased funding and governmental support for widespread implementation.

 

About Global Coral Reef Alliance
GCRA

The Global Coral Reef Alliance [GCRA] is a small, 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to growing, protecting and managing the most threatened of all marine ecosystems—coral reefs. Founded in 1990.

GCRA is a coalition of volunteer scientists, divers, environmentalists and other individuals and organizations, committed to coral reef preservation. We primarily focus on coral reef restoration, marine diseases and other issues caused by global climate change, environmental stress and pollution.

We employ a method which allows reefs to survive and recover from damage caused by excessive nutrients, climate change, and physical destruction. The mineral accretion, or the Biorock® Process, is owned by Biorock®, Inc. and is licensed to GCRA. This technology has been successfully applied to fish and shellfish mariculture as well as to growing limestone breakwaters to protect islands and coastal areas from erosion and rising sea levels. Coral reefs built with the Biorock process are now growing in Maldives, Seychelles, Thailand, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Mexico, Panama and, in one of the most remote and unexplored reef areas of the world, Saya de Malha Banks in the Indian Ocean.

GCRA scientists work with foundations, governments or private firms to build, restore and maintain coral reefs, nurseries and marine sanctuaries. Projects include restoration and construction of coral reefs for mariculture and tourism as well as breakwaters for shore protection.


For more information, visit www.globalcoral.org

 

Technical Research Media Resource

The project—dubbed "Bio-Rock"—is the brainchild of scientist Thomas Goreau and the late architect Wolf Hilbertz. The two have set up similar structures in some twenty [20] countries, but the Bali experiment is the most extensive.

Goreau said the Pemuteran Bay reefs off Bali's northwestern shore were under serious assault by 1998, victims of rising temperatures and impoverished islanders' aggressive fishing methods, which included stunning fish with cyanide poison and scooping them up with nets.

"Under these conditions, traditional [revival] methods fail," explained Goreau, who is in Bali presenting his research at the UN-led conference. "Our method is the only one that speeds coral growth." Some say the effort is severely limited.

Rod Salm, coral reef specialist with the Nature Conservancy, said while the method may be useful in bringing small areas of damaged coral back to life, it has very limited application in vast areas that need protection. "The extent of bleaching ... is just too big," Salm said. "The scale is enormous and the cost is prohibitive."

Others note the Bali project is mostly dependent on traditionally generated electricity, a method that itself contributes to global warming. Goreau himself concedes it has yet to attract significant financial backing. Nonetheless, scientists agree that coral reefs are an especially valuable—and sensitive—global environmental asset. They provide shorelines with protection from tides and waves, and host a stunning diversity of plant and sea life.

How It Works

It has long been known that coral that breaks off the reef can be salvaged and restored if it can somehow be reattached.

Goreau's Bali project constructs metal frames, often in the shape of domes or greenhouses, and submerges them in the bay. When hooked up to a low-voltage energy source on the shore, limestone—a building block of reefs—naturally gathers on the metal. Workers then salvage coral that has broken from damaged reefs and affix the pieces of live coral to the structure.

Goreau and his supporters say the electricity spurs the weakened coral to restore itself. "When they get the juice, they are not as stressed," said Rani Morrow-Wuigk, an Australian-German who rents bungalows on the beach and has supported efforts to save the reefs for years.

Indeed the corals on the structures appear vibrant, and supporters say they have rebounded with impressive vigor. The coral in Pemuteran teems with clownfish, damselfish, and other colorful tropical animals.

Money and Maintenance

Funding, however, is a major problem. There are some forty [40] metal structures growing coral in Pemuteran Bay and about one hundred [100] cables laid to feed them with electricity, but only about a third of the wires are working because of maintenance problems and the cost of running them, said Morrow-Wuigk.

The electrification program is part of a wider effort in the bay to save the coral.

Chris Brown, an Australian diving instructor who has lived in Bali for seventeen [17] years, said he and other people determined to save the reefs have long struggled to drive away fishermen who use dynamite and other coral-destroying methods to maintain their livelihoods. He said a key has been demonstrating to shoreline communities the benefits of coral reef maintenance, such as growing fish stocks and more jobs catering to tourists who come to dive in the area.

Brown has participated in Goreau's projects and won funding from the Australian government to set up a Bio-Rock structure electrified by solar panels fixed on a floating offshore platform. Brown has also used seed money from Australia's capital Canberra to establish the Reef Gardeners of Pemuteran, an organization that trains islanders to dive, maintain the solar-paneled coral structure, and clean the reefs of harmful animals.

Kadek Darma, 25, a Balinese who has worked with Brown for two years, said the advantages of the corals to the local economy were obvious. "They attract the tourists, and more tourists means more jobs," he said. "I hope we can all keep maintaining the reefs for our great-great grandchildren."

Copyright 2007 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.

 

Technical Research Media Resource

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Divers Alert Network is Your Dive Safety Association

Monday - Friday 08:30 am to 05:00 pm EST
+1-919-684-2948 +1-800-446-2671

DAN is Divers Alert Network, the diving industry’s largest association dedicated to scuba diving safety. Serving scuba divers for more than thirty [30] years, DAN provides emergency assistance, medical information resources, educational opportunities and more. Whether you are just learning how to scuba dive or are a veteran of the sport, DAN has a great deal to offer you.

 

 

SIGNIFICANT TECHNICAL STUDIES RESOURCE

What is Lophelia?

Lophelia pertusa is a stony coral found in deep, dark waters. Thousands of polyps form the coral colonies which can develop large reef frameworks providing a home for many other animals – cold-water coral reefs are local centres of biodiversity.

The name Lophelia derives from the Greek lophos and helioi, 'a tuft of suns', referring to the individual sun-like coral polyps.

The word coral conjures images of tropical waters with colourful reefs within snorkelling distance of the shore. These are tropical corals and are among the most studied and loved ecosystems on earth. It may surprise people to hear that corals aren't just found in the tropics. The cold, dark waters of the deep-ocean are home to cold-water coral reefs.

Since the early 1800s scientists have known about corals and coral banks in the deep-sea. Many reports came from fishermen who brought back coral specimens which had become entangled in their nets - capturing the attention of scientists with the promise of these tantalizing glimpses of a hidden coral world.

Since these pioneering days, deep-sea science has advanced significantly. The development of tools ranging from acoustic mapping systems to mini-submarines has allowed scientists to visit cold-water corals in their natural habitat. Scientists have now recorded over 1,300 species living among coral reefs in the north-eastern Atlantic, proving them to be among the most important and diverse ecosystems of the world.

Cold-water corals are widely distributed and found in many parts of the world's oceans. The Atlantic, Mediterranean, Indian and Pacific Oceans have all been found to contain cold-water corals. So far, many of the reports have been from the north-east Atlantic, where much of the current research has been undertaken.

 

 

SIGNIFICANT TECHNICAL LIBRARY RESOURCE

Cold-Water Corals

The Biology and Geology of Deep-Sea Coral Habitats

May 25, 2009

By
J. Murray Roberts [Author] · Andrew Wheeler [Author]
André Freiwald [Author] · Stephen Cairns [Author]

 

www.amazon.com

ISBN-13: 978-0521884853 ISBN-10: 0521884853
EDITION 1st

There are more coral species in deep, cold-waters than in tropical coral reefs. This broad-ranging treatment is the first to synthesise current understanding of all types of cold-water coral, covering their ecology, biology, palaeontology and geology. Beginning with a history of research in the field, the authors describe the approaches needed to study corals in the deep sea. They consider coral habitats created by stony scleractinian as well as octocoral species. The importance of corals as long-lived geological structures and palaeoclimate archives is discussed, in addition to ways in which they can be conserved. Topic boxes explain unfamiliar concepts, and case studies summarise significant studies, coral habitats or particular conservation measures. Written for professionals and students of marine science, this text is enhanced by an extensive glossary, online resources and a unique collection of colour photographs and illustrations of corals and the habitats they form.

Reviews & Endorsements
Jörg Ott, Marine Ecology

"Four experts have teamed up to assemble the current knowledge on these systems under siege. The result is a book containing a wealth of detailed information and instructive illustrations, spanning all aspects of this wonderful world in the dark ocean."

Published by Cambridge University Press

 

 

 

 


 

TERRITORIAL WATERS EXHIBIT

Territorial waters, or a territorial sea, as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most twelve [12] nautical miles [22 km; 14 miles] from the baseline [usually the mean low-water mark] of a coastal state.

The territorial sea is regarded as the sovereign territory of the state, although foreign ships [both military and civilian] are allowed innocent passage through it; this sovereignty also extends to the airspace over and seabed below.

The term "territorial waters" is also sometimes used informally to describe any area of water over which a state has jurisdiction, including internal waters, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and potentially the continental shelf.

 


SOURCE CREDIT

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Teritorial Waters Study TBNC OPLAT 2011

 

 

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