Determine, illustrate and support the conceptual planning site placement of the Offshore Airport Platform [OPLAT] encompassing the following elements;


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The Ten Busiest Airspaces In The United States
July 10th, 2011  ·  By Matthew Van Dusen

© General Electric 2011.  All Rights Reserved



Aircraft Operations 2010: 1,954,000

The gargantuan air traffic control center in SoCal deals with 62 separate airports, from giants like Los Angeles International to smaller strips like Bob Hope Airport in Burbank. It’s arguably the busiest airspace in the entire world, with poetic air traffic controllers committed to “this complex ballet we call air traffic control.”

For a few years now, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International has been the busiest airport in the world in several categories, serving about 90 million passengers and 950,000 aircraft last year. But that doesn’t mean the air above Atlanta is the busiest in the U.S. That distinction goes to Southern California’s skies, which are dotted with aircraft bound for 62 separate airports.

The most crowded skies in the U.S. are around population centers but not necessarily at the biggest airports — Atlanta ranks fifth on the list. Megacities like New York, no. 2 on the list, are served by many airports. So, to take a more accurate census of the sky, we looked past the airports, to the airspace controlled by the FAA’s Terminal Radar Approach Controls. The so-called TRACONs are air traffic control facilities that guide aircraft approaching or leaving large cities — they’re an intermediate step between an airport’s tower and the wild blue yonder. The FAA records (pdf) every time an aircraft passes through these spaces. It’s not a perfect measure, but it’s a good broad indicator of traffic.

These stretches of sky stand to benefit most from FAA’s Next Generation project, which will replace 1950s radar technology with satellite-based navigation and could move higher volumes of planes much more efficiently.



Representational Study Component

Geomorphology [from Greek: "earth"; "form"; and logos, "study"] is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics, and to predict future changes through a combination of field observation, physical experiment, and numerical modeling. Geomorphology is practiced within geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology, and geotechnical engineering, and this broad base of interest contributes to a wide variety of research styles and interests within the field.

The form of the Earth's surface evolves in response to a combination of natural and anthropogenic processes, and responds to the balance between processes that add material and those that remove it. Such processes may act across very many lengthscales and timescales. On the broadest scales, the landscape is built up through tectonic uplift and volcanism. Denudation occurs by erosion and mass wasting, which produces sediment that is transported and deposited elsewhere within the landscape or off the coast. On progressively smaller scales, similar ideas apply, where individual landforms evolve in response to the balance of additive [tectonic or sedimentary] and subtractive [erosive] processes. Modern geomorphology can be thought of as the study of the divergence of fluxes of material on a planetary surface, and as such is closely allied with sedimentology, which can equally be seen as the convergence of that flux.

Geomorphic processes are influenced by tectonics, climate, ecology, and human activity, and equally, many of these drivers can be affected by the ongoing evolution of the Earth's surface, for example, via isostasy or orographic precipitation. Many geomorphologists are particularly interested in the potential for feedbacks between climate and tectonics mediated by geomorphic processes.

Practical applications of geomorphology include hazard assessment [such as landslide prediction and mitigation], river control and restoration, and coastal protection.

There is a considerable overlap between geomorphology and other fields. Deposition of material is extremely important in sedimentology. Weathering is the chemical and physical disruption of earth materials in place on exposure to atmospheric or near surface agents, and is typically studied by soil scientists and environmental chemists, but is an essential component of geomorphology because it is what provides the material that can be moved in the first place. Civil and Environmental Engineers are concerned with erosion and sediment transport, especially related to canals, slope stability [and natural hazards], water quality, coastal environmental management, transport of contaminants, and stream restoration.




San Diego Offshore International Airport Ocean Sea bed Topography Draft Studies 2011
San Diego Offshore International Airport FAA AirSpace Placement Studies






The Federal Aviation Administration [FAA] provides noise classifications on various types of aircraft under the standards established in Federal Aviation Regulations [FAR] Part 36. Aircraft may be certificated as Stage 1, Stage 2, or Stage 3 based on its noise level, weight, number of engines and in some cases, the number of passengers. Stage 1 aircraft, the oldest and noisiest aircraft [e.g., B.707] are no longer permitted to operate in the United States. Stage 2 aircraft include aircraft models such as the B.737-200, B.727, and DC-9 aircraft. Stage 2 aircraft have been phased out of the United States' commercial air carrier fleet as of January 1, 2000. Stage 3 aircraft are the newer, generally quieter aircraft [e.g., B.737-300, B.757, B.767, A.320 and MD 80/90 aircraft, among a multitude of others].

Stage 3 aircraft may also include aircraft that were Stage 2 when manufactured, but have since been fitted with "hush kits" or have been re-engined and re-certified to meet the Stage 3 noise standards. Although aircraft meeting Stage 3 standards are noticeably quieter than many of the older aircraft, the regulations make no determination that such aircraft are acceptably quiet for operation at any given airport.
To implement the Airport Noise and Capacity Act [ANCA], the FAA amended FAR Part 91 and issued a new FAR Part 161. FAR Part 91 addresses the phase-out of large Stage 2 aircraft and the phase-in of Stage 3 aircraft. Part 161 establishes a stringent review and approval process governing the implementation of local airport use or access restrictions by airport proprietors.

The California Airport Noise Standards [Standards[ state that the basis for the acceptable level of aircraft noise for persons living in the vicinity of airports is a Community Noise Equivalent Level [CNEL] of 65 decibels. In addition, the Standards state that no proprietor of a "noise problem" airport shall operate an airport with a noise impact area of 65 decibels CNEL unless the operator has applied for and received a Variance from the California Airport Noise Standards. The Aeronautics Division of the California State Department of Transportation [CALTRANS], enforces the California Airport Noise Regulations. SDIA is one of ten California airports subject to the "noise problem airport" requirements. These regulations establish 65 dB CNEL as a noise impact boundary within which there shall be no incompatible land uses. This requirement is based, in part, upon the determination in the CALTRANS regulations that 65 dB CNEL is the level of noise which should be acceptable to "... a reasonable person residing in the vicinity of an airport." Airports are responsible for achieving compliance with these regulations. Airports not in compliance must operate under variance procedures established within the regulations. SDIA has received eight such variances to operate since the late 1970s. As of January 2007, there are approximately 10,000 dwelling units and 23,000 persons residing in the SDIA noise impacted area.




San Diego Offshore International Airport IFR Enroute.Arrival.Departure Charts Study 2011
San Diego Offshore International Airport IFR Bayvu STAR.IFR Airspace Studies 2011
San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Airspace Studies Poggi.Two IFR Departure 2011

Federal Aviation Regulations [FAR] defines IFR as: “Rules and regulations established by the FAA to govern flight under conditions in which flight by outside visual reference is not safe. IFR flight depends upon flying by reference to instruments in the flight deck, and navigation is accomplished by reference to electronic signals. It is also referred to as, “a term used by pilots and controllers to indicate the type of flight plan an aircraft is flying,” such as an IFR or VFR flight plan.

Instrument flight rules permit an aircraft to operate in instrument meteorological conditions [IMC], which have much lower weather minimums than VFR. Procedures and training are significantly more complex as a pilot must demonstrate competency in conducting an entire cross-country flight in IMC conditions, while controlling the aircraft solely by reference to instruments.

As compared to VFR flight, instrument pilots must meticulously evaluate weather, create a very detailed flight plan based around specific instrument departure, en route, and arrival procedures, and dispatch the flight. Once airborne, the IFR pilot is then challenged to fly the aircraft in the same air traffic control [ATC] environment and weather systems that two-crew jet aircraft are using at the same time.

Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere.


Controlled airspace exists where it is deemed necessary that air traffic control has some form of positive executive control over aircraft flying in that airspace [however, Air traffic control does not necessarily control traffic operating under visual flight rules within this airspace].

Uncontrolled airspace is airspace in which air traffic control does not exert any executive authority, although it may act in an advisory manner.

Airspace may be further subdivided into a variety of areas and zones, including those where there are either restrictions on flying activities or complete prohibition of flying activities.

San Diego Offshore International Airport Airspace Considerations Study 2011

By international law, the notion of a country's sovereign airspace corresponds with the maritime definition of territorial waters as being twelve [12] nautical miles [22.2 km] out from a nation's coastline. Airspace not within any country's territorial limit is considered international, analogous to the "high seas" in maritime law. However, a country may, by international agreement, assume responsibility for controlling parts of international airspace, such as those over the oceans. For instance, the United States provides air traffic control services over a large part of the Pacific Ocean, even though the airspace is international.

There is no international agreement on the vertical extent of sovereign airspace [the boundary between outer space— which is not subject to national jurisdiction— and national airspace], with suggestions ranging from about 30 km [19 miles] [the extent of the highest aircraft and balloons] to about 160 km [99 miles] [the lowest extent of short-term stable orbits].

The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale has established the Kármán line, at an altitude of 100 km [62 miles], as the boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and the outer space, while the United States considers anyone who has flown above fifty [50] miles [80 km] to be an astronaut; indeed descending space shuttles have flown closer than 80 km [50 miles] over other nations, such as Canada, without requesting permission first. Nonetheless both the Kármán line and the U.S. definition are merely working benchmarks, without any real legal authority over matters of national sovereignty.





Territorial waters, or a territorial sea, as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most twelve [12] nautical miles [22 km; 14 miles] from the baseline [usually the mean low-water mark] of a coastal state.

The territorial sea is regarded as the sovereign territory of the state, although foreign ships [both military and civilian] are allowed innocent passage through it; this sovereignty also extends to the airspace over and seabed below.

The term "territorial waters" is also sometimes used informally to describe any area of water over which a state has jurisdiction, including internal waters, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and potentially the continental shelf.



San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Teritorial Waters Study TBNC OPLAT 2011




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By JASON DEAREN Associated Press
12:01 a.m. June 2, 2013
Updated 9:30 p.m. May 31, 2013

Routes changed near San Francisco, Santa Barbara and Los Angeles

TBNC Edgemon OPLAT Offshore International Airport Platform Program "Save The Whales" Edgemon CSLB 274107 Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers, California USA OPLAT USA
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SAN FRANCISCO — Large vessels traveling to ports on the California coast are set to begin using new traffic lanes developed to protect endangered whales from ship collisions.

The new lanes change the routes of ships using San Francisco Bay, the Santa Barbara Channel and the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach in an effort to steer ships clear of where whales congregate.

Migrating blue, fin and humpback whales are prone to ship strikes since they are lured to the California shoreline in years when there’s plentiful krill. The three species are endangered.

“Our goal is a balance between the safe passage of commercial vessels into our busy ports and protection of endangered whale populations in and adjacent to marine sanctuaries,” William Douros of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said.

Blue whales, the largest animals on Earth, can grow up to 90 feet long but are tiny compared to large cargo ships that can be four football fields long. There are believed to be about 2,000 blues in the northeast Pacific. There also are about 2,000 fin whales in the northeast Pacific, and about 2,500 humpbacks.

An uptick in the number of fatal whale strikes spurred federal maritime officials to work with the shipping industry and environmentalists on a two-year study meant to find ways to reduce the whale deaths. The new lanes, along with aerial studies and an on-ship whale sighting effort, are efforts meant to reduce whale casualties. The use of the new lanes was scheduled to begin Saturday.

John Calambokidis, an Olympia, Wash.-based scientist who has studied ship strikes off the West Coast for decades and who participated in the effort, said the lanes are a good first step, but not a panacea.

“This will be a significant improvement, but it will only result in a modest reduction in ship strikes and there are a number of additional steps we need to take to make more progress on this,” Calambokidis said.

In addition to the new traffic lanes, researchers will begin a series of flights beginning July 1 over the Santa Barbara Channel that will help further map where ship and whale traffic overlap.

Shipping companies have also agreed to host a NOAA-approved scientist aboard some company ships to develop a vessel-based whale spotting program that would reduce strikes.

The Pacific Merchant Shipping Association, which worked on the changes, applauded the efforts.

“We are in full agreement with the shipping changes as they will help assure the protection of both human and marine life and the continued safe and efficient flow of commerce in and out of California ports,” TL Garrett, the association’s vice president, said.


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San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Program Tsunami Studies Non Event OPLAT TBNC 2011

A tsunami [Japanese: 津波 ], lit. 'harbor wave'; English pronunciation: / tsuːˈnɑːmi/ tsoo-NAH-mee] is a series of water waves [called a tsunami wave train] caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually an ocean, but can occur in large lakes. Tsunamis are a frequent occurrence in Japan; approximately one hundred ninety-five [195] events have been recorded.

Owing to the immense volumes of water and the high energy involved, tsunamis can devastate coastal regions.

Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions [including detonations of underwater nuclear devices], landslides and other mass movements, meteorite ocean impacts or similar impact events, and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.

The Greek historian Thucydides was the first to relate tsunami to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of a tsunami's nature remained slim until the 20th century and is the subject of ongoing research.

Many early geological, geographical, and oceanographic texts refer to tsunamis as "seismic sea waves."

Some meteorological conditions, such as deep depressions that cause tropical cyclones, can generate a storm surge, called a meteotsunami, which can raise tides several metres above normal levels. The displacement comes from low atmospheric pressure within the centre of the depression. As these storm surges reach shore, they may resemble (though are not) tsunamis, inundating vast areas of land. Such a storm surge inundated Burma in May 2008.

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Tsunami Studies OPLAT TBNC 2011

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Tsunami Studies OPLAT TBNC 2011

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FAA Aerospace Forecast Fiscal Years 2011–2031

Over the past decade the commercial air carrier industry has suffered several major shocks that have led to reduced demand for air travel. These shocks include the terror attacks of September 11, skyrocketing prices for fuel, and a global recession. To manage through this period of extreme volatility, air carriers fine-tuned their business models with the aim of minimizing financial losses. To lower operating costs, carriers eliminated unprofitable routes and grounded older, less fuel efficient aircraft. To increase operating revenues, carriers charged separately for services historically bundled in the price of ticket and initiated new services which customers were willing to purchase. The capacity discipline exhibited by the carriers and their focus on additional revenue streams bolstered the industry to profitability in 2010 (for the first time since 2007). Going into the next decade, there is cautious optimism that the industry has been transformed from one of a boom-to-bust cycle to one of sustainable profits.


San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform FAA Support Study Publication Files 2011

The global economy is growing again, reviving the demand for air travel. Profitability for the U.S. carriers will hinge on a stable environment for fuel prices, an increase in demand for corporate air travel, the ability to pass along fare increases to leisure travelers, and the generation of ancillary revenues. To navigate the volatile operating environment, mainline carriers will continue to drive down their costs by better matching flight frequencies and/or aircraft gauge with demand, delaying deliveries of newer aircraft and/or grounding older aircraft, and pressuring regional affiliates to accept lower fees for contract flying. Over the long term, we see a competitive and profitable industry characterized by increasing demand for air travel and airfares growing more slowly than inflation.

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Airspace Studies FAA Credits 2011

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