San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Hydrokinetic Structural Elements Studies OPLAT TBNC 2011


The use of water power dates back thousands of years to the water wheels of Ancient Greece, which used the energy in falling water to generate power to grind wheat. We now are presented with an opportunity to develop a new generation of water power, one that will harness the abundant energy of our oceans and rivers.

Hydrokinetic technologies produce renewable electricity by harnessing the kinetic energy of a body of water, the energy that results from its motion. Since water is 832 times denser than air, our tides, waves, ocean currents, and free-flowing rivers represent an untapped, powerful, highly-concentrated and clean energy resource.

San Diego Offshore Interntaional Airport Hydrokenetic Energy Generation Studies TBNC OPLAT 2011

Estimates suggest that the amount of energy that could feasibly be captured from U.S. waves, tides and river currents is enough to power over 67 million homes. Based on current project proposals, experts predict that the country could be producing 13,000 MW of power from hydrokinetic energy by 2025.  This level of development is equivalent to displacing twenty-two [22] new dirty coal-fired power plants, avoiding the annual emission of nearly 86 million metric tons of carbon dioxide, as well as other harmful pollutants like mercury and particulate matter. The avoided carbon emissions in 2025 would be equivalent to taking 15.6 million cars off the road.


All energy technologies impact the environment, but all impacts are certainly not the same. As we choose which energy resources to develop, we must weigh their varied costs within the context of the existing hazard of global climate change. Studies are underway to investigate the potential impacts of harvesting wave and current energy on wildlife and the environment; however, it is clear that these technologies could help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that are causing dangerous global warming. We need to weigh the environmental impacts of hydrokinetic technologies against the environmental and impacts of other available energy technologies, keeping in mind the costs of fossil fuels on air pollution and water pollution as well as global warming, and the need to have sufficient low-emission alternatives. 

There are a number of types of water resources from which it is possible to generate electricity from kinetic energy. Capturing the energy contained in near and off-shore waves is thought to have the greatest energy production potential amongst these hydrokinetic options. The rise and fall of ocean waves is driven by winds and influenced by oceanic geology. The promise of waves as a power source comes from both sheer resource availability and a relatively advanced technological development status. Extracting only 15% of the energy in U.S. coastal waves would generate as much electricity as we currently produce at conventional hydroelectric dams. Much of this wave potential is found along our Pacific Coast, near big cities and towns.

San Diego Offshore International Airport Hydrokinetic Studies Overview Mappage OPLAT TBNC 2011

In addition to waves, researchers believe that ocean tides hold promise as an energy resource. Each change in the tide creates a current, called a tidal stream. These predictably regular tidal streams have the potential to provide us with a reliable new source of clean electricity without building the dams, or barrages, that have been part of the few existing tidal projects developed in some other countries.




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TBNC Edgemon Oplat-Usa Offshore International Airport Platform Program Near San Diego, California Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107 Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Enginers & Construction Managers USA


Since 2004, ORPC has been hard at work developing breakthrough technology and eco-conscious projects that use ocean and river currents to produce clean, predictable electricity to power homes and businesses while protecting the environment. ORPC believes that ocean and river power systems not only can, but must, be designed to preserve the world’s marine ecosystems. They should provide renewable supplies of clean energy that are both reliable and affordable. They should be compatible with other marine industries, and should create quality, sustainable jobs and other economic opportunities in their surrounding communities.

ORPC’s unique power systems and projects embody every aspect of this philosophy. ORPC is one of the few companies in the world to have generated electricity from tidal currents without using dams, which can upset the balance of marine environments, and ORPC monitors specific equipment carefully to ensure there are no adverse effects on sea life. Every ORPC project is carried out in collaboration with local communities, universities, environmental agencies, fishing industry groups, and other major stakeholders.

ORPC’s Maine Tidal Energy Project has already brought more than eight [8] million dollars [US] into the state economy, and has created or helped retain more than one hundred [100] jobs in thirteen [13] Maine, USA counties. In the next seven [7] to ten [10] years, investment in Maine’s tidal energy industry could reach one [1] billion dollars [US] or more. These same benefits will be realized in Alaska and Nova Scotia, where ORPC is also actively working with local groups to make tidal and river energy a reality.

ORPC develops its proprietary power systems and project sites simultaneously, which means that as our systems reach commercial scale, some of North America’s best tidal energy sites will be licensed and ready for project installation. ORPC is partnering with local utilities and community-based renewable energy developers and obtaining the required permits to install proprietary power systems in world-class tidal resources in Maine, Alaska and Nova Scotia. Combined, ORPC sites have the potential to generate more than three hundred [300] megawatts of clean, predictable electricity.

Going forward, ORPC will be forging new strategic and financial partnerships that will allow ORPC to expand operations in North America, and eventually offer specific technology and expertise to ocean and river energy projects worldwide.


TBNC Edgemon OPLAT-USA Offshore International Airport Platform program Near San Diego, California USA Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107 USABuilt primarily with composite materials, they resist corrosion in fresh and salt water alike. As gearless units, they require no lubricants, and emit absolutely nothing into the surrounding water.

ORPC power systems generate clean, renewable electricity by harnessing the energy of the world’s rivers and oceans. Rather than relying on dams, which can be costly and detrimental to marine environments, ORPC power systems are designed around proprietary Turbine Generator Unit, or TGU.

TGU works on the same principle as a wind turbine, with rotating foils that power a central permanent magnet generator. But because ORPC install it underwater, and water is more than eight hundred [800] times denser than air, TGUs provide significantly more power than wind turbines at relatively low water current speeds.


At river and ocean energy sites, ORPC installs TGUs in groups, to form complete power systems that convert river and ocean energy into grid-compatible power. The TGU has a modular design that makes it easy to adapt to the varying needs of different site environments, and can be configured differently depending on where it will be used.

To install power systems at small river and shallow tidal sites, ORPC secure arrays of TGUs to the riverbed or seabed using bottom support frames. To use this technology at deeper tidal and deep ocean current sites, ORPC “stack” several TGUs together to form larger, more powerful modules, which then moor to the sea floor with a deep sea mooring system. Because the modules are buoyant, they suspend them above the sea floor at a depth that’s safe for both sea vessels above and sea life below.

ORPC’s power systems produce no emissions of any kind and require no fossil fuels to operate, deriving their power solely from the renewable resource of the earth’s rivers and oceans. Since these currents are both regular and completely predictable, the clean, dependable energy generated by ORPC power systems can be scheduled years in advance.


TBNC Edgemon OPLAT-USA Hydrokinetic Energy Generation Edgemon California Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers USA Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107 California


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Ocean wave power projects seek solid footing on West Coast

Written by  Mike Lee
3 p.m., Aug. 15, 2011


TBNC Edgemon Offshore International Airport Platfom Hydrokenitic Energy Generators In Concept University of Oregon, OPLAT USA Southern California USA

There’s wide interest in harnessing the ceaseless power of the ocean because so-called hydrokinetic energy facilities could provide a steady source of energy without air pollution or toxic waste.

But there are so many barriers that the concept hasn’t generated much momentum in California despite aggressive state mandates to ratchet up renewable power supplies.

Numerous ways of harnessing the ocean's energy for human use are being tested at a marine energy center at Oregon State University and other spots around the world. — Oregon State University

“Wave energy is just not quite ready. It’s probably a decade away from being commercially viable,” said Cordel Stillman, deputy chief engineer at the Sonoma County Water Agency, which mothballed its wave projects this month. “But the motion of the waves is the most compact and dense energy available from a natural source, and it’s only a matter of time before we figure out how to harvest that.”

Officials at the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission said no ocean-wave energy facilities in domestic waters are connected to the power grid, though they have issued more than 30 preliminary permits for exploring tidal or wave projects. Also, the Department of Energy has helped fund a renewable marine energy research center shared by Oregon State University and the University of Washington.

Engineers have experimented with numerous methods for transferring ocean pulses into energy for everyday life. They include using devices that move up and down with the waves like pistons and others that look like giant snakes floating atop the waves and producing power as they flex. Some scientists also are exploring ways to capture energy from steady ocean currents that could turn underwater turbines, much like wind does in the San Diego County backcountry.



Harnessing power from ocean waves or currents has a big upside but it also has could have negative impacts on the ocean environment, according to a 2008 report by Oregon State University and others. Possible problems include:

Pelagic Habitat:  Minimizing entanglement of sea turtles in loose lines is crucial and some scientists are concerned about potential effects of electromagnetic fields created by the operations.

Benthic Habitat:  Wave-energy facilities likely will affect local currents and that may change the movement of sediment and larvae. Organisms growing on buoys, cables and anchors may alter sandy seafloor environments where they will be placed.

Fish:  Large facilities could affect migration of salmon, crabs, sturgeon, whales and other creatures.

Seabirds:  Above-water structures may attract birds and alter food webs.

Marine Mammals: Mooring cables may lead to animals getting unintentionally snared.




Wave & Tidal Energry Generation San Diego Offshore Airport Platform

Norwegian Minister of Oil and Energy kicks off for Morild II tidal power plant and the test period.

The Norwegian MPE, Mr. Terje Riis-Johansen, officially opens Hydra Tidals floating tidal power plant the Morild II on Tuesday 23 November. The opening ceremony marks the start of the planned two-year trial period for testing and verification of plant Morild II and the technology.

The tidal power plant has an installed effect of 1.5 MW, and the unique turbine blades of laminated wood with a diameter of 23 meters. Indications are that both of these variables qualify the Morild II to being the world's largest floating power plant of its kind. - We know of no comparable floating tidal power plants in the world. There are smaller scale models that have been installed, but Morild II is a full-scale plant. The largest known turbine diameter of other power plants is 18 meters, and the largest installed power known to us is 1 MW. Thus we can imply with a fair amount of certainty that Morild II is the largest tidal power plant of its kind - says the CEO of Hydra Tidal, Eivind Nydal.

After a construction period of about two years, the plant was launched at sea in Harstad this fall, and then towed to Gimsoystraumen in Lofoten, where it is now anchored and connected to the local power grid. The Morild II is expected to supply power to the grid by the end of 2010.

On the guest list for the opening are suppliers, shareholders, directors, employees and contributors to both research and financing for the project.




Uldolmok Tidal Power Station is a tidal power station in Uldolmok, Jindo County, South Korea. The plant was commissioned in May 14, 2009 [2009-05-14] by the South Korean government. The plant cost ten million [$ 10,000,000 US.] dollars and has an installed capacity of 1,000 KW [1 MW], generating 2.4 GWh annually, sufficient to meet the demand of four hundred thirty [430] households.

The South Korean government plans to increase this capacity of 1 MW to 90 MW by the end of the year 2013, increasing the demand cover to 46,000 households, while simultaneously working on the 254 MW Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station. Part of the goal of generating 5,260 GWh through tidal power by 2020.

The Uldolmok Strait experiences tidal water speeds that exceed 6.5 m/s [21.3 ft/s] with the width of the strait being approximately 300 m (980 ft).


Tidal power is the only form of energy which derives directly from the relative motions of the Earth-Moon system, and to a lesser extent from the Earth-Sun system. Tidal forces produced by the Moon and Sun, in combination with Earth's rotation, are responsible for the generation of the tides.

Other sources of energy originate directly or indirectly from the Sun, including fossil fuels, conventional hydroelectric, wind, biofuels, wave power and solar. Nuclear energy makes use of Earth's mineral deposits of fissile elements, while geothermal power uses the Earth's internal heat which comes from a combination of residual heat from planetary accretion [about 20%] and heat produced through radioactive decay [80%].

Tidal energy is extracted from the relative motion of large bodies of water. Periodic changes of water levels, and associated tidal currents, are due to the gravitational attraction of the Sun and Moon. Magnitude of the tide at a location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth, the effects of Earth rotation, and the local geography of the sea floor and coastlines.

Because the Earth's tides are ultimately due to gravitational interaction with the Moon and Sun and the Earth's rotation, tidal power is practically inexhaustible and classified as a renewable energy resource.

A tidal generator uses this phenomenon to generate electricity. Greater tidal variation or tidal current velocities can dramatically increase the potential for tidal electricity generation.

San Diego Offshore International Airport Hydrokinetic Tidal Flows Draft Studies Graph 03R.2001.16ST.OPLAT TBNC 2011San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Hydrokinetic Studies OPLAT TBNC 2011


The movement of the tides causes a continual loss of mechanical energy in the Earth-Moon system due to pumping of water through the natural restrictions around coastlines, and consequent viscous dissipation at the seabed and in turbulence. This loss of energy has caused the rotation of the Earth to slow in the 4.5 billion years since formation. During the last 620 million years the period of rotation has increased from 21.9 hours to the 24 hours [4] we see now; in this period the Earth has lost 17% of its rotational energy. While tidal power may take additional energy from the system, increasing the rate of slowdown, the effect would be noticeable over millions of years only, thus being negligible.

Dynamic tidal power (or DTP) is a theoretical generation technology that would exploit an interaction between potential and kinetic energies in tidal flows. It proposes that very long dams (for example: 30-50 km length) be built from coasts straight out into the sea or ocean, without enclosing an area. Tidal phase differences are introduced by the dam, leading to a significant water level differential (at least 2-3 meters) in shallow coastal seas featuring strong coast-parallel oscillating tidal currents such as found in the UK, China and Korea. Each dam would generate power at a scale of 6 - 15 GW.




DRAFT CONFIGURATION STUDY ISSUES 2018 - 2020 [Rev. 11.22.19]

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Ballast Plan View Concept 2011


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