Light rail or light rail transit [LRT] is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems. The term is typically used to refer to rail systems with rapid transit-style features that usually use electric rail cars operating mostly in private rights-of-way separated from other traffic but sometimes, if necessary, mixed with other traffic in city streets. If this is the case, then under the law of many countries such systems are then legally tramways, although the vehicles which run on them are sometimes designated "supertrams". Modern light rail technology is flexible and adaptable, and whether any given system is considered a true rapid transit system or not depends on its characteristics.

Prototypical Airport Interconnectivity Light Rail Systems

An airport rail link is a service providing passenger rail transport from an airport to a nearby city; by mainline or commuter trains, rapid transit, people mover or light rail. Direct links operate straight to the airport terminal, while other systems require an intermediate use of people mover or shuttle bus.

Although airport rail links have been popular solutions in Europe and Japan for decades, only recently have links been constructed in North America and Oceania, and the rest of Asia. Advantages for the rider include faster travel time and easy interconnection with other public transport, while authorities have benefited from less highway and parking congestion, less pollution, and additional business opportunities. Additionally, the links benefit airports by drawing in more passengers via easy access.

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Interconnectivity HSLRTST Light Rail Studies OPLAT TBNC 2011



Archimedes HSLRST Bridge San Diego International Airport Platform Program


San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform HSLRST Studies BART Exhibit Credits OPLAT TBNC 2011

The Transbay Tube is the part of BART which runs under San Francisco Bay in California, United States of America. The "tube" is 3.6 miles [5.7 km] long; including approaches from the nearest stations [one of which is underground], it totals 6 miles [9 km]. It has a maximum depth of 135 feet [41 m] below the surface.

The tube was constructed on land, transported to the site then submerged and fastened to the bottom [mostly by packing the sides with sand and gravel]. This immersed tube technique is in contrast to bored tunneling, where rock is removed to leave a passage, the method of underground mines, and, for example, the Channel Tunnel between France and England.

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform HSLRST Interconnectivity Studies BART Exhibit OPLAT TBNC Studies 2011


The idea of an underwater tube traversing San Francisco Bay was suggested by Emperor Norton, the eccentric "Emperor of North America" from San Francisco, in the mid-to-late 19th century. Serious consideration to the idea was first given in October 1920 by Major General George Washington Goethals, the builder of the Panama Canal. The alignment of Goethals's proposed tube is almost exactly the same as BART's Transbay Tube. In 1947, a joint Army-Navy Commission recommended an underwater tube as a means of relieving automobile congestion on the then ten-year old San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge.

Seismic studies commenced in 1959 and construction was started in 1965. The tube itself was finished in 1969. The tracks and electrification needed for the trains were finished in 1973 and the tube was opened to service in 1974. The tube is made of fifty-seven [57] individual sections that were built on land and towed out into the bay by a large barge. They were then positioned above where they were to sit and lowered into a trench packed with soft soil, mud and gravel for leveling along the bay's bottom. Once the sections were in place, bulkheads at each end of each of the sections were removed and a protective layer of sand and gravel was packed against the sides. It cost approximately one hundred eighty million [$180,000,000.] dollars US in 1970.

During construction, the Transbay Tube was also used briefly as a shooting location for the end of George Lucas's film THX 1138. The final climb out to the daylight was actually filmed, with the camera rotated ninety [90] degrees, in the incomplete [and decidedly horizontal] Transbay Tube before installation of the track supports, with Robert Duvall's character using exposed reinforcing bars as a ladder.

The western terminus of the tube directly connects to the downtown Market Street Subway near the Ferry Building, north of the Bay Bridge. The tube crosses under the bridge between the San Francisco Peninsula and Yerba Buena Island, and emerges in Oakland along 7th Street west of Interstate 880.





CHINA will soon build the world's first so-called Archimedes bridge across Qiandao Lake in Zhejiang Province, Xinhua.

When completed, the one hundred meter [100m] long bridge will be submerged in the water. It will look like an oval tube from outside. Inside it, two layers of one-way motorways will run though in the middle, with two railway tracks flanking them.

The site of the prospective bridge was unveiled at an exhibition held at the Chinese Embassy in Rome.

The bridge itself can produce enough buoyancy to stay afloat. Therefore anchors and steel cables will be used to attach it to the lake bottom.

This project is based on the Archimedes law, from which the bridge derives its name. It can also be called a suspended tunnel or submerged floating tunnel.

The law, or Archimedes' principle as it is sometimes referred, states that an object immersed in fluid loses weight equal to the weight of the amount of fluid it displaces.

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Archimedes Bridge Studies OPLAT TBNC 2011


The Archimedes bridge is expected to have a bright future as a state-of-the-art architectural technique. Compared with other traditional techniques like suspension bridges and sunken tunnels, it is cheaper to build and produces less pollution. Though the technique can be widely used in places like straits and inland seas, it still has to overcome some technical problems.

The Sino-Italian cooperation culminated in a treaty signed in 2004 between the Institute of Mechanics of Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Italian Archimedes Bridge Company, which paved the way for future construction of the bridge.




In physics, buoyancy is an upward acting force exerted by a fluid, that opposes an object's weight. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the over lying fluid. Thus a column of fluid, or an object submerged in the fluid, experiences greater pressure at the bottom of the column than at the top. This difference in pressure results in a net force that tends to accelerate an object upwards. The magnitude of that force is equal to the difference in the pressure between the top and the bottom of the column, and is also equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the column. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink. If the object is either less dense than the liquid or is shaped appropriately [as in a boat], the force can keep the object afloat. This can occur only in a reference frame which either has a gravitational field or is accelerating due to a force other than gravity defining a "downward" direction [that is, a non-inertial reference frame]. In a situation of fluid statics, the net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body. This is the force that enables the object to float.

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform HSLRST Archimedes Bridge Conceptual Studies OPLAT 2011 TBNC





Eurostar™ is a high-speed passenger rail service connecting London with Paris and Brussels.
All its trains traverse the Channel Tunnel between Britain and France, owned and operated separately by Eurotunnel.

The London terminal is St. Pancras, with calling points at Ebbsfleet International and Ashford International in Kent. Calling points in France are Calais-Fréthun and Lille-Europe, with the main Paris terminus at Gare du Nord. Trains to Belgium terminate at Midi/Zuid station in Brussels. In addition, there are limited services from London to Disneyland Paris at Marne-la-Vallée - Chessy, and to seasonal destinations in southern France.

The service is operated by eighteen-coach Class 373/1 trains which run at up to three hundred [300] kilometres per hour [kph] [186 mph] on a network of high-speed lines. The LGV Nord line in France opened before Eurostar services began in 1994, and newer lines enabling faster journeys were added later — HSL 1 in Belgium and High Speed 1 in southern England. The French and Belgian parts of the network are shared with Paris–Brussels Thalys services and other TGV trains.

In the United Kingdom the two-stage Channel Tunnel Rail Link project was completed on 14 November 2007 and renamed High Speed 1, when the London terminus of Eurostar transferred from Waterloo International to St. Pancras International.

Eurostar was until 2009 operated jointly by the national railway companies of France and Belgium, SNCF and SNCB, and Eurostar [UK] Ltd [EUKL], a subsidiary of London and Continental Railways [LCR], which also owns the high-speed infrastructure and stations on the British side. Eurostar has become the dominant operator in cross-channel intercity passenger travel on the routes that it operates, carrying more passengers than all airlines combined. Other operators have expressed an interest in purchasing EUKL, or starting competing services following deregulation in 2010. On 1 January 2010, Eurostar was incorporated as a single corporate entity called Eurostar International, replacing the joint operation between EUKL, SNCF and SNCB

San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform EuroStar Study Exhibits "Chunnel" OPLAT USA 2011 TBNC Draft Studies



San Diego Offshore International Airport HSLRST Norwegian Test Tunnel Study TBNC 2011


San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform HSLRST Tunnel Development Study Exhibits NY Hudson River


San Diego Offshore International Airport Tunnel master Planning Chunnel Archive Exhibit


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