Terminal 1 at Beijing International Airport is set to be the largest in the world

The number of Chinese tourists eager to travel the world has risen dramatically over the last few years, and Beijing International Airport is launching the world's biggest terminal to cope with the substantial increase. 

Opening in 2018, the gigantic Terminal 1 will cover 700,000 square metres, and is set to handle forty-five million [45 m] passengers a year. 

Renown British-Iraqi architect, Zaha Hadid, has collaborated with airport developers ADPI to create a six-tier concept which aims to decrease customer walking distances, and increase connectivity. 


Opening in 2018, the gigantic Terminal 1 will cover 700,000 square metres,
and is set to handle forty-five million [45 m] passengers a year

Aiming to be the perfect welcome to Beijing, the designs focus on creating a feeling of space and openness, which is reflected in the flowing lines of the roof, and the lack of pillars inside. 

All the passenger pathways will convene in a central multi-layered courtyard, which will be a meeting place for passengers who have traveled from around the globe. 


The huge terminal will focus on wide open spaces,
made possible by the lack of pillars and a flowing roof design

Zaha Hadid's website states that the structure of Terminal 1 will guide users seamlessly and harmoniously through the building by public spaces that flow into each other, reflecting the harmony and balance between Chinese landscape and culture.

It is hoped to combine the rich Chinese culture, with its impressive future on the worldwide stage.

The international airport, which also goes by the name of Daxing Airport, is the second busiest in the world, after Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport which saw ninety-six million [96 m] passengers pass through it last year. 

London Heathrow was the third busiest in the world with over seventy-three million [73 m] passengers.

The new terminal reflects research by the Bank of America Merrill Lynch which found that there were one hundred nine million [109 m] Chinese tourists in 2014, who spent one hundred sixty-four billion [$164 b] dollars.

These figures are a dramatic increase from the ten million [10 m] outbound tourists in 2000.

Studio London

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Zaha Hadid Director AA Dipl, RIBA, ARB, BDA, AIA

Zaha Hadid, founder of Zaha Hadid Architects, was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize [considered to be the Nobel Prize of architecture] in 2004 and is internationally known for both her theoretical and academic work.

Each of her dynamic and innovative projects builds on over thirty years of revolutionary exploration and research in the interrelated fields of urbanism, architecture and design.

Hadid’s interest lies in the rigorous interface between architecture, landscape and geology as her practice integrates natural topography and human-made systems, leading to experimentation with cutting-edge technologies. Such a process often results in unexpected and dynamic architectural forms.





Zaha Hadid is a prolific and visionary architect and designer, as well as the only female recipient of the Pritzker Prize for Architecture since its 1979 inception.

Hadid’s structures are famous for their use of fragmented geometry and multiple entry points such that the building looks different from different perspectives.

She explains: “It’s all about promenading, being able to pause, to look out, look above, look sideways.”

Hadid, who has a background in mathematics, studied at the Architectural Association in London, which is famous for its rejection of post-modern styles of architecture in favor of classic modernism. There, she worked under Elia Zenghelis and Rem Koolhaas, the latter of whom would become her first employer.


Visit Ms. Hadid's Artistic Expressions at Artsy Specific Off-Site Web Presence

Artsy’s mission is to make all the world’s art accessible to anyone with an Internet connection.
We are a resource for art collecting and education.

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Beijing Daxing International Airport


Beijing Daxing International Airport (Chinese: 北京大兴机场) or Beijing Capital Second International Airport (Chinese: 北京首都第二机场) is a planned new airport serving Beijing. the name of the future airport has not been made official yet.

The airport is to be built in Daxing District, located 46 km [29 mi] south of city center. The airport will be located on the southern part of Daxing along the border with Hebei province. The new airport is expected to serve Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei.

The airport will cover an area of 2,680 hectares.

The projected completion date for the new airport is October 2018. A new 37 km [23 mi] high-speed rail line is planned which will connect the airport to Beijing South railway station with a journey time of thirty [30] minutes. All flights from Beijing Nanyuan Airport which is currently only used by China United Airlines, will be transferred to Daxing.

The airport's master plan has been designed by airport consulting firm NACO and will feature a ground transportation centre providing the airport with public transportation links to high-speed rail, metro, expressways, Beijing Airport Bus routes, local buses and inter-airport transportation system. Other consulting firms are competing to design the terminal building.


Airport Development History

A second airport for Beijing was proposed in 2008. By 2012, the existing Beijing Capital International Airport was running at near its full design capacity.


Initial Airport Development Proposals

Early media reports during September 2011 suggested that there could be up to nine [9] runways: eight [8] runways for civil aviation plus one [1] runway dedicated to military usage.

It would replace Beijing Capital International Airport [which had eighty-three million {83 m} passengers in 2013, second most in the world] as the main airport of Beijing and the largest in China and was being planned as a domestic-only airport. The airport was planned to be able to handle one hundred twenty million [120 m] to two hundred million [200 m] passengers a year, which, if capacity were fully used, would make it the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic, surpassing Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport.

It is not yet decided how flights will be divided between the two [2] Beijing Airports. One suggestion was planning to have one [1] airport focus on international flights and the other to focus on domestic flights.

The airport is scheduled to relocate both SkyTeam [including China Southern Airlines] and Oneworld airlines to the new airport with Star Alliance airlines and other airlines remaining at Capital, effectively making both airports international hubs.


Approval for Construction

Official approval for construction by the Chinese State Council and officials was given on Sunday, 13 January 2013. It called for an airport to be constructed in the southern part of Daxing, along the Hebei border. No design or plans were released due to ongoing negotiations.

It was stated that it would consist of seven [7] runways, six [6] for civilian use and one [1] for military purposes.

Construction is expected to be completed in October 2018 with a capacity of handling seventy-five million [75 m] passengers by 2025. The estimated cost of construction is at least seventy billion [70 b RMB] [US $11.2 billion). 37 km [23 mi] rail link to Beijing South Railway Station has also been included.


Beijing Daxing International Airport Construction

Construction of the airport began on Friday, December 26, 2014.





Broadly defined, institutional vernacular architecture is an area of architectural theory that studies the structures made by empirical builders.

There exist many areas of architectural practice, from primitive shelter in distant communities to urban adaptations of building types that are imported from one country to another. Because of that, institutional vernacular architecture is a very open, comprehensive concept. It is in fact used as a shortcut and a synonymous for several different practices, and theoretical stands on those practices. These include primitive or aboriginal architecture; indigenous architecture; ancestral or traditional architecture; folk, popular, or rural architecture; ethnic architecture or ethno-architecture; informal architecture; the so-called "anonymous architecture".



Architectural Studies San Diego Region SoCal Offshore International Airport Program



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San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Cladding & Curtainwall Study exhibits 2011
San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Architectural Cladding & Curtainwall Studies TBNC OPLAT 2011



Architectural Cladding Studies San Diego Offshore Airport Platform Program

San Diego International Offshore Airport Platform program MOZ Three-Dimensional Study Exhibits Red OPLAT TBNC 2011
San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Architectural Elements Three-Dimensional Studies 2011 TBNC OPLAT


Inspired by rippling water and elements of nature, Oakland, California based MOZ Design column covers at the W Hotel in Scottsdale, Arizona, supports a poolside retreat above the architectural ceiling that also accommodates large light portals, allowing the sun to shimmer through the water.

Large custom lighting fixtures protrude from the interior of the suspended canopies. Shrouded in Champagne with a Kelp pattern, the fixtures captivating interaction with the Champagne column covers to portray the concept of light beams shining down through the poll above, represented by MOZ Design Sapphire Wall Weave in Ripples.

MOZ supplied approximately 3,500 square feet [325 m2] of weave ceiling panels, 896 square feet [83m] of column covers and 200 square feet [19 m2] of metal for the light cove.

Hornberger + Worstell, San Francisco, California was the architect.

Credit : Metal Architecture, Metal Construction News, Modern Trade Communications USA




San Diego Offshore International Airport Terminals Stainless Steel Elements Study 2011 TBNC OPLAT Issue
San Diego Offshore International Airport Platform Terminals Stainless Steel Studies TBNC OPLAT 2011


An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from aircraft.

Within the terminal, passengers purchase tickets, transfer their luggage, and go through security. The buildings that provide access to the airplanes [via gates] are typically called concourses. However, the terms "terminal" and "concourse" are sometimes used interchangeably, depending on the configuration of the airport.

Smaller airports have one terminal while larger airports have several terminals and/or concourses. At small airports, the single terminal building typically serves all of the functions of a terminal and a concourse.

Some larger airports have one terminal that is connected to multiple concourses via walkways, sky-bridges, or underground tunnels [such as Denver International Airport]. Some larger airports have more than one terminal, each with one or more concourses [such as New York's La Guardia Airport]. Still other larger airports have multiple terminals each of which incorporate the functions of a concourse [such as Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport].

Most airport terminals are built in a plain style. However, some, such as Baghdad International Airport, are monumental in stature, while others are considered architectural masterpieces, such as Terminal 1 at Charles de Gaulle Airport near Paris or Terminal 5 at New York's JFK Airport. A few are designed to reflect the culture of a particular area, some examples being the terminal at Albuquerque International Sunport in New Mexico, which is designed in the Pueblo Revival style popularized by architect John Gaw Meem, as well as the terminal at Bahías de Huatulco International Airport in Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, which features some palapas that are interconnected to form the airport terminal.




San Diego Offshore International Airport Terminals Stainless Steel Study Elements 2001 TBNc OPLAT USA




In metallurgy stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is defined as a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5 or 11% chromium content by mass.

Stainless steel does not stain, corrode, or rust as easily as ordinary steel, but it is not stain-proof. It is also called corrosion-resistant steel or CRES when the alloy type and grade are not detailed, particularly in the aviation industry. There are different grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Stainless steel is used where both the properties of steel and resistance to corrosion are required.

Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium present. Unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture. This iron oxide film [the rust[ is active and accelerates corrosion by forming more iron oxide. Stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to form a passive film of chromium oxide, which prevents further surface corrosion and blocks corrosion from spreading into the metal's internal structure.

Passivation only occurs if the mixture of chromium is high enough.




San Diego Offshore International Airport Terminals Cladding Studies & Linear Ramp Depiction AutoDesk TBNC 3-D Studies OPLAT 2011



A curtainwall is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep out the weather.

As the curtainwall is non-structural it can be made of a lightweight material reducing construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advantage is that natural light can penetrate deeper within the building. The curtainwall façade does not carry any dead load weight from the building other than its own dead load weight. The wall transfers horizontal wind loads that are incident upon it to the main building structure through connections at floors or columns of the building.

A curtainwall is designed to resist air and water infiltration, sway induced by wind and seismic forces acting on the building, and its own dead load weight forces.

Curtainwalls are typically designed with extruded aluminum members, although the first curtainwalls were made of steel. The aluminium frame is typically infilled with glass, which provides an architecturally pleasing building, as well as benefits such as daylighting. However, parameters related to solar gain control such as thermal comfort and visual comfort are more difficult to control when using highly-glazed curtainwalls. Other common infills include: stone veneer, metal panels, louvers, and operable windows or vents.

Curtainwalls differ from store-front systems in that they are designed to span multiple floors, and take into consideration design requirements such as: thermal expansion and contraction; building sway and movement; water diversion; and thermal efficiency for cost-effective heating, cooling, and lighting in the building.





Representational Case Study Application & Methodology

Studio Fuksas China

Shenzen Bao’an International Airport · China
Forty-Five [45,000,000] Million Passengers per Year

Designed to mimic the natural shape of a manta ray [but also clearly reminiscent of an airplane], the new expansion of the Shenzen Bao’an International Airport in China  is covered in thousands of hexagonal skylights.

Terminal 3 by Italian firm Studio Fuksas doubles the capacity of the existing airport and will accommodate forty-five million [45,000,000] passengers per year.

Taking inspiration from both the natural form of a manta ray and the more obvious shape of an airplane, the Shenzen airport extension in China is covered in thousands of hexagonal skylights across a steel and glass canopy, creating a honeycomb pattern within the undulating all-white interior.



The firm Studio Fuksas studied a variety of life forms to come up with its highly distinctive, curving, all-white design.

“The concept of the plan for Terminal 3 of Shenzen Bao’an international airport evokes the image of a manta ray,
a fish that breathes and changes its own shape, undergoes variations,
[and] turns into a bird to celebrate the emotion and fantasy of a flight,” they explain.


The steel and glass canopy spans two hundred sixty-two feet [262'] = eighty meters [80 m.] across, and the honeycomb pattern of the windows reflects onto the glossy white floor and various stainless steel surfaces for a dazzling geometric effect.

Voids in the floors of the three [3] airport levels create double- to triple-height spaces.




Those strange branch-like structures located throughout the interior are air conditioning vents inspired by abstracted trees.

The entire structure measures over 5.3 million square feet. It opened to the public on November 28th, 2013.

“The spatial concept is one of fluidity and combines two different ideas: the idea of movement and the idea of pause.

Carefully considering the human experience of such environments, Studio Fuksas focused on processing times, walking distances, ease of orientation, crowding, and availability of desired amenities.”



Studio Fuksas China

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518053 Nanshan District · Shenzhen · China

+86 755 29910136 Telephone · +86 755 29591652 Facsimile

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